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《奥林匹克研究读本》

发布时间:2011-9-28 18:57:58|来源:文明杂志社|分享到:
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这本《奥林匹克研究读本》是在国际奥委会尤其是其信息管理部和奥林匹克研究中心的大力支持下,由北京体育大学和加玛费尔豪大学合作完成的。本书纸质、CD和其他媒体形式的出版和发行均为免费。同时也提供免费的网络下载。除商业目的外,允许复印该书或其中论文,但请务必注明作者和原始出处。版权所有。封面图片属国际奥委会收藏品。

北京体育大学——中国,北京
加玛费尔豪大学——巴西,里约热内卢

编辑 任海 拉马丁•达科斯塔 安娜•米拉加娅 牛静
发行者:丹特•格斯达多尼
设计:艾温莱恩•劳埃尔•比斯波
出版:北京体育大学出版社

《奥林匹克研究读本》
1. 奥林匹克研究——文集
2.奥运会——文集
3.文化——历史
4.文化——方法学
5.文化——哲学



雅克•罗格  
国际奥委会主席

自从1894年国际奥委会在巴黎的索邦大学建立以来,学术界始终在奥林匹克运动中发挥着一定的作用。
大学一直是历届奥运会组委会(OCOGs)的合作伙伴,从其学生中提供大量的志愿者,协助组委会的人员培训并为比赛提供其体育设施,从而为奥运会的成功举办做出了重要贡献。许多大学还与负责该国不同层次的奥林匹克教育的国家奥委会(NOCs)合作,支持其计划的实施。
大学学者们对奥林匹克运动发展的研究也同样提供了宝贵的支持。他们的学识,尤其是人文和社会科学的学识,使我们意识到奥林匹克主义和奥运会的本源,从而丰富了对影响奥林匹克运动关键问题的分析与研究。
这些年来,多元文化主义的研究有力地推动了奥林匹克研究多学科的发展,这为普及奥林匹克运动及其价值,特别是对他人和不同文化的尊重,提供了基本信息。
因此,我十分高兴地看到,巴西加玛费尔豪大学和北京体育大学由拉马丁•达科斯塔教授和任海教授合作,并在国际奥委会奥林匹克研究中心的支持下,别具创意地出版了这本《奥林匹克研究读本》,这是奥林匹克研究做出的珍贵贡献的一个范例。
我希望这一多学科和多元文化研究指南的首卷本,能为其所有的读者提供关于奥林匹克现象之复杂性和丰富性更为适宜的知识,从而鼓励更多的其他学者和学生来研究,或继续他们在奥林匹克研究领域的工作。

雅克•罗格


Preface by the President of the International
Olympic Committee Jacques Rogge

Since the IOC was created at the Sorbonne University in Paris in 1894, the academic world has always played a part in the life of the Olympic Movement.
Universities have often partnered the Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs) by offering numerous volunteers from among their students, helping to train the OCOG staff and offering the use of their sports facilities. They have thus played an important role in the success enjoyed by the Games. Many universities have also worked with the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), which are responsible for supporting the Olympic education programmes at all levels of education in their respective countries.
University researchers likewise offer valuable assistance in studies on the development of the Olympic Movement. Thanks to their knowledge, especially in the human and social sciences, they remind us of the origins of Olympism and the Olympic Games, and thereby enrich the studies and analyses of the key issues affecting the Olympic Movement.
For some years now, the multi-disciplinary richness of Olympic studies has been strongly enhanced by work on multiculturalism. This offers essential information on the universality of the Olympic Movement and its values, particularly respect for others and different cultures.
This is why I am delighted that the University Gama Filho in Brazil and the Beijing Sports University in China, under the coordination of Professors Lamartine Dacosta and Ren Hai and with the support of the IOC Olympic Studies Centre, have taken the initiative of publishing the “Olympic Studies Reader”, which is an excellent example of the valuable contribution made by Olympic studies.
I hope that the first volume of this multidisciplinary and multicultural research guide will provide all its readers with a better knowledge of the complexity and richness of the Olympic phenomenon, and will encourage many other researchers and students to work or continue working in the field of Olympic studies.



杨桦 教授 
北京体育大学校长  
中国北京

在全球化大潮席卷世界的今天,世界各国之间及不同的文化之间的交流比以往任何时候都更加迫切。通过各民族间的文化沟通,构建一个多元而和谐的世界文化体系,是我们这个地球村落长远发展的根本利益所在。历史多次证明,人类社会的发展速度及发展水平取决于它所能利用的文化资源的丰富程度。中国春秋战国时期的百家争鸣,奠定了汉唐的恢弘气象;欧、亚、非三大洲的文化交汇,成就了古希腊文明的一时之盛。现代奥运的先驱者顾拜旦也是因为整合了古代与现代多种文明的成果,才为奥林匹克运动的蓬勃发展奠定了基础。但是,由于各国政治、经济、宗教、文化和语言等方面的差异,使得跨国家和跨文化的沟通、交流面临种种障碍,困难重重。以体育运动为手段,强调普世价值的奥林匹克运动得到国际社会的高度关注,其原因之一就是向人们展示了一个多元文化并存的世界,促使人们摆脱各自的文化偏见,以世界公民的胸怀去认识和理解自己民族以外的事物,求同存异,取长补短,“从而为建立一个和平的更美好的世界做出贡献。”奥林匹克运动的普遍性与文化的多样性相辅相成,为人类社会提供一个共享而开放的交流平台。
正是在这个基础上,北京体育大学奥林匹克研究中心的任海教授与巴西加玛费尔豪大学的达科斯塔教授等合作编辑了这本颇具创意的《奥林匹克研究读本》。在这部书里,来自世界各地的专家学者从多元文化的视野对当代奥林匹克运动的诸多问题进行了深入思考,提出了一系列发人深省的新观点,令人耳目一新。为了方便广大中国读者,本书采用中英文相互对照的方式,反映了语言的多样性,这也是奥林匹克研究中的一个创新。
为此,我代表北京体育大学向国际奥委会主席、北京体育大学名誉博士雅克•罗格先生为本书作序表示衷心的感谢。
北京体育大学是中国最早的重点院校和“211”重点建设院校,学科门类齐全,其培养计划覆盖从本科至研究生的所有层次。学校与世界上23个国家和地区的45所高等院校和体育科研机构建有合作关系。奥林匹克运动始终是学校积极参与的一个重要领域,1994年就成立了奥林匹克研究中心。在2008年北京奥运会筹办和举办过程中,学校全面参与了竞技参赛、科技服务、场馆服务、奥运人才支持、奥运遗产传承等各个领域的工作。有近百名师生入选中国体育代表团,参加了10多个项目的竞赛,取得14枚金牌、6枚银牌和2枚铜牌。建校50多年来,学校在“追求卓越”的校训指引下,为中国的奥林匹克事业培养了大批人才,为国际奥林匹克运动做出了突出贡献。我们期待着我们学校师生及中国专家、学者们在奥林匹克研究领域有更多的国际合作。

Preface YANG Hua, Professor President of Beijing Sport University Beijing, China

Today, as globalization sweeps across the world, exchanges betweennations and between different cultures of the world have become moreurgent than ever before. Building a pluralistic and harmonious globalcultural system through cultural connections serves the fundamentalinterests of the long-term development of our global village. Historyhas repeatedly demonstrated that the speed and level of developmentof human society depend upon the richness of cultural resources atits disposal. It was the period of “a hundred contending schools ofthought” in China’s Spring and Autumn Period that established thefoundation for the magnificence of the Han and Tang Dynasties; itwas the convergence of cultures from the three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa that resulted in the brief flowering of ancient Greekcivilization. It was also true that Pierre de Coubertin, the pioneer of themodern Olympic Movement, was able to establish the foundation forthe vigorous development of the Olympic Movement because he integratedthe achievements of ancient and modern civilizations. However,the political, economic, religious, cultural, linguistic and other differencesbetween nations mean that transnational and transcultural interactionand exchange face all kinds of obstacles and numerous difficulties. Onereason that the Olympic Movement, which uses sport to emphasizeuniversal values, has received a high level of attention from internationalsociety is that it displays a world of multicultural co-existence, encouragingpeople to leave behind their own cultural biases, to apply the broadmindedperspective of a world citizen to acknowledge and understand peoples outside their own, to seek common ground despite differences,to complement each others’ strengths and weaknesses, and thus to“contribute to building a peaceful and better world.” The universalityand cultural diversity of the Olympic Movement complement each other,offering to human society a shared and open platform for exchange.
It is precisely upon this platform that Professor Hai REN of theCentre for Olympic Studies at Beijing Sport University collaboratedwith Professor Lamartine DaCosta of the University Gama Filho – Riode Janeiro to edit this innovative Olympic Studies Reader. In this book,experts and scholars from around the world engage in profound reflectionsupon many issues of the contemporary Olympic movement from amulticultural perspective, and they propose a series of thought-provokingnew ideas that are very eye-opening. For the convenience of the largeChinese audience, the book juxtaposes Chinese and English texts, reflectingthe diversity of language, which is also an innovation of Olympicstudies.
On behalf of Beijing Sport University, I would like to express mysincere gratitude to Mr. Jacques Rogge, the IOC President, recipient ofan Honorary Doctorate from Beijing Sport University, for writing thepreface to this book.
Beijing Sport University was one of the first universities in Chinadesignated as a “key university” and is included in the “211 Key UniversityConstruction Project.” It has a full range of disciplines in sportsciences, covering all levels of degree from undergraduate to graduate. Ithas established partnerships with 45 universities and research institutesin 23 countries and territories. From the beginning, the Olympic Movementhas always been an important area in which the university has beenactively involved, and it founded the Centre for Olympic Studies in 1994.In the preparatory work and organization of the 2008 Beijing OlympicGames, the university was fully involved in various areas, including participatingin the sports competitions, technology support, venue service,supply of Olympic personnel, transmission of the Olympic legacy, andmore. Nearly one hundred teachers and students from the university were chosen for the Chinese sports delegation, taking part in more thanten sports and winning fourteen gold, six silver and two bronze medals.For more than fifty years, guided by its motto “pursue excellence,” theuniversity has trained a large number of talented people on behalf ofChina’s Olympic endeavor, and has made an outstanding contributionto the international Olympic movement. We hope that in the future ouruniversity’s teachers and students, and China’s experts and scholars, willengage in still more international collaboration in the area of Olympicstudies.


马里亚•若泽•韦林 教授、博士
加玛费尔豪大学校长
里约热内卢.巴西

《奥林匹克研究读本》(OSR)第一卷是与北京体育大学合作的学术项目的成果,加强了加玛费尔豪大学在体育领域的传统,该传统不仅来自过去30年对奥运会选手的培训,也来自其体育领域的研究生教育,高质量的研究者培养及得到包括国际奥林匹克委员会(IOC)认可的,具有国际水准的若干出版物。
《奥林匹克研究读本》从多元文化和多学科的角度剖析了奥林匹克主义,它不仅提供了关于体育运动的新视角,而且将巴西和中国置于今日学术研究的顶端。同时,它强化了里约热内卢和巴西对世界体育活动的参与,如2007年的泛美运动会、2014年国际足联世界杯及里约热内卢已经申办入围的2016年奥运会。
《奥林匹克研究读本》提供了可用于对国际奥委会利益相关者的新角色的讨论,以促进奥林匹克体育运动的全球发展。由于本书聚焦于体育的多元文化,这也是奥林匹克发展的基础需要,可将其简述为北京体育大学和加玛费尔豪大学——里约热内卢的一个合作学术项目,其成果就是这本有来自五大洲的86位作者参与的书(非商业的)。此项目在2008年,2009年和2010年分3卷出版。中方编辑为任海教授和牛静博士;巴西编辑是拉马丁•达科斯塔教授和安娜•米拉加娅教授。免费获取第一卷PDF版本的网站为:
http://www.bsu.edu.cn/new/web/files/OLYMPICSTUDIESREADER.pdf
需要强调指出的是,多元文化不仅是本书创作的选题,更是一种手段,使来自国际体育组织鞭长莫及的国家和文化的作者和研究成果有发表的空间和机会。因此,本项目无意于中转或以其他方式回顾既有的知识。出于这种考虑,国际奥委会根据达科斯塔教授的建议,进行了三卷本的征文(国际奥委会,2007年)。达科斯塔教授有着2002年在加玛费尔豪大学编辑《大众体育》一书的经验。从知识管理的角度来看,《奥林匹克研究读本》提供的整合协同,有助于发现和推广那些在搜寻多元文化的价值观和过程中关系日益密切的各位作者。
对国际奥委会而言,该书以学生及对奥林匹克有兴趣的研究人员为对象,可达到两个主要目的:提供有关奥运会、奥林匹克主义和奥林匹克运动研究主题的知识;为未来的奥林匹克研究项目提供指导和建议。本书出于国际性的考虑,创新性地在英文之外附加了中文,这会使其有更多的读者和研究者。这也为其他语言的使用,增强知识的传播,开辟了新的前景。
入选或推荐入选该项目的文章均以奥林匹克价值观为导向,聚焦于多元文化或多学科方法,分别代表了奥林匹克研究的新趋势或科学传统。这种选择的意义是,通过不同的文化视野,保持奥林匹克运动和体育的传统知识与新方法相匹配。
从编辑的角度来看,《奥林匹克研究读本》应该能够找出新的基础,将国际主义(众多国家)与多元文化主义(众多文化)和多边主义(众多政治体制)联系起来,形成相互交融的概念,从而使多元主义(众多价值)成为一个共享的领域(即分享共同的属性,团结),为实用价值导向的互动在不同层次上提供长期的文化交流。
此外,正如中国和巴西的编辑们颇具创意提出的,多元化在此主要是指通过构建共同知识,实现多元文化的互动,这正是我们从来自众多国家背景的作者们的文章中所看到的。因此,支持这一观念的论点是,奥林匹克创新价值的多样性需要多种途径,而不是简单的选择。
总之,《奥林匹克研究读本》是加玛费尔豪大学坚持巴西的体育传统以及与其中国伙伴创新合作的成果。因此,我希望这种结合会对奥林匹克运动的未来发展提供新的成果。


Preface Prof. Dra. Maria José Wehling Reitora Universidade Gama Filho Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The edition of the first volume of the Olympic Studies Reader(OSR), result of the academic project with Beijing Sport University,reinforces the tradition of University Gama Filho in the area of sports,earned during the last three decades not only through the training ofOlympic athletes but also through its Graduate Program in PhysicalEducation, producing qualified researchers, and through several publicationsthat have received international standing, including recognitionfrom the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
As the Olympic Studies Reader analyzes Olympism from the perspectiveof multiculturalism and multidisciplinarity, it not only offers anew look over sports but also places both Brazil and China at the top oftoday’s academic production. At the same time, it consolidates the growingparticipation of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil in world sports events suchas the 2007 Pan-American Games, the 2014 FIFA World Cup and thecandidacy of Rio de Janeiro to stage the 2016 Olympic Games.
The OSR forwards observations that can be discussed towardsthe IOC new role of stakeholder for the development of Olympicsports worldwide. As the central focus of this book is multiculturalismin sports, mainly grounded on Olympic development needs, it can bebriefly described as a joint academic project of Beijing Sport Universityand University Gama Filho – Rio de Janeiro, having a (non-commercial)book as outcome, with the participation of 86 authors from five con-tinents in three volumes dated 2008, 2009 and 2010. The ChineseEditors are Prof. Hai Ren and Prof. Niu Jing. The Brazilian Editorsare Prof. Lamartine DaCosta and Prof. Ana Miragaya. The websitefor free access to the first volume in PDF is:
http://www.bsu.edu.cn/new/web/files/OLYMPICSTUDIESREADER.pdf
It is essential to mention that multiculturalism is not only athematic choice for the production of this book but rather a meansto give space and opportunity to publish authors and studies fromcountries and cultures still far from the management possibilitiesof international sport institutions. Thus, this project did not aim totransfer or to review knowledge otherwise. And in this concern, theIOC started up the production of the three-volume book through a“Call for Papers” (IOC, 2007) suggested by Prof. DaCosta, accordingto his experience with the Sport for All book, also edited in2002 at University Gama Filho. From the perspective of KnowledgeManagement, the synergy provided by the Olympic Studies Readermay contribute to the identification and promotion of authors, whohave gotten more connected and articulated in search of multiculturalvalues and procedures.
From the IOC side, this publication, aimed at students andresearchers interested in Olympism, would meet two main objectives:to provide knowledge on the main research themes related tothe Olympic Games, Olympism and the Olympic Movement; and tooffer guidelines and suggestions to develop future Olympic researchprojects. The innovation in this case lies on the use of Chinese asan additional language to English for international concerns, whichallows the inclusion of more readers and researchers. This opensperspectives for the use of other languages that can contribute forthe dissemination of knowledge.
Olympic values-led texts selected or recommended to candidatesto join the project have focused either on multiculturalism oron multidisciplinary approaches, respectively in relation to innova-tive trends or to scientific traditions for Olympic Studies concerns.The meaning of this option is to keep the traditional knowledge alltogether with new approaches to Olympic sport and sport in generalthrough the eyes of diverse cultures.
From the editors’ viewpoint, the Olympic Studies Reader shouldbe able to identify new foundations to Internationalism (nations) asan overlapping concept in relation to Multiculturalism (cultures) andMultilateralism (politics) from which Pluralism (values) may stand asan area of commonality (i. e. sharing of common attributes, solidarity)providing long-term intercultural exchange between different levels ofpractical values-led interactions.
Also, as a new proposal from the Chinese-Brazilian editors,plurality in this case is mostly referred to as multicultural interactionby means of the construction of common knowledge, as seen in theelaboration of texts by groups of authors with multiple national roots;hence, the supportive thesis to this conception is that the diversity ofvalues in Olympic initiatives demands plural approaches, not selection.
In all, the Olympic Studies Reader came out as a result of theUniversity Gama Filho’s sport traditions in Brazil as well as of theinnovative accomplishment of its counterparts in China. In this concern,I hope this association may produce new outcomes on behalf ofthe Olympic Movement future development.


CONTENTS

Preface by the President of the International l Olympic Committee Jacques Rogge
序 
国际奥委会主席 雅克•罗格

Preface
YANG Hua , Professor
President of Beijing Sport University
Beijing , China

杨桦 教授
北京体育大学校长
北京,中国

Preface
Prof . Dra . Maria José Wehling
Reitora Universidade Gama Filho
Rio de Janeiro , Brazil

马里亚•若泽•韦林 教授、博士
加马费尔豪大学校长
里约热内卢,巴西

1.
THE IOC OLYMPIC STUDIES CENTRE AND THE OLYMPIC STUDIES NETWORK
国际奥委会奥林匹克研究中心和奥林匹克研究网络
Philippe Blanchard
Director of the IOC Information Management Department
Nuria Puig
Head of Universities Relations Olympic Studies Centre
菲利普•布朗夏尔
国际奥委会信息管理部主任
努利亚•普伊格
奥林匹克研究中心大学联络部主任

11.
Foreword
Setting the Stage for Multiculturalism, Values and
Pluralism in Olympic Studies Research
为奥林匹克研究的多元文化主义、价值和多元主义搭建平台
Lamartine DaCosta and Ana Miragaya
Olympic Studies Research Group  University Gama Filho / Brazil
拉马丁•达科斯塔 安娜•米拉加娅
加玛费尔豪大学奥林匹克研究团队,里约热内卢,巴西

23.
Multiculturalism
多元文化主义

25.
The Development of the Internationa Olympic Movement since the 1980s and
the Issues it Faces
1980年代以来国际奥林匹克运动的发展和当前面临的问题
HE Zhenliang
Chairman IOC Commission for Culture and Olympic Education Honorary President of the Chinese Olympic Committee (COC)
何振梁
国际奥委会文化与教育委员会主任、中国奥委会名誉主席

45.
Olympic Education and Cross-Cultura Communication
奥林匹克教育与跨文化传播
REN Hai
Centre for Olympic Studies, Beijing Sport University
任海
北京体育大学奥林匹克研究中心,中国

55.
Multicu ltura lism in the Olympic Movement
奥林匹克运动中的多元文化主义
Susan Brownell
University of Missouri
苏珊•布朗奈尔
密苏里大学

69.
Hope Lies in the Revival of Eastern Sport Culture
寄希望于东方体育文化的复兴
lu yuanzhen
Academy of Sciences of Sports, South China Normal University
卢元镇
华南师范大学体育科学学院,中国

81.
Olympism, Communication and Culture
奥林匹克主义、传播与文化
Miquel de Moragas Spà
Centre d’Estudis Olímpics Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
米奎尔•德默拉嘎斯•斯巴
巴塞罗那自治大学奥林匹克研究中心,西班牙

99.
Cultura l Imperia lism and the Diffusion of Olympic Sport in Africa : a Comparison of Pre and Post Second Wor ld War Contexts
文化帝国主义和奥林匹克体育运动在非洲的传播:二战前后的比较研究
Dikaia Chatziefstathiou*, Ian Henry**,
Mansour Al-Tauqi***, and Eleni Theodoraki**
*Department of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure,
Canterbury Christ Church University
**Centre for Olympic Studies and Research,
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences,
Loughborough University
***Department of Physical Education,
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
迪卡亚•查特则夫斯达提乌1,伊恩•亨利2,
马索•阿勒-托齐3,艾利尼•特欧多拉克2
1. 坎特伯雷基督教会大学体育科学、旅游和休闲系;
2. 拉夫堡大学体育与运动科学学院奥林匹克研究中心;
3. 苏丹卡布斯大学体育系,阿曼

117.
Toward a Bicu ltura l View of Olympism within New Zealand Physica l Education: An Emerging Journey
新西兰体育中奥林匹克主义的二元文化观:一次新兴之旅
Ian Culpan, Judy Bruce, Hugh Galvan
University of Canterbury Olympic Studies
伊恩•卡尔潘,茱迪•布鲁斯,休•加云
坎特伯雷大学奥林匹克研究中心,新西兰

137.
AN ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL SPORTING PRACTICES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF OLYMPISM IN AFRICA BASED
ON STUDY OF THE CASE OF THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
非洲传统体育活动与奥林匹克主义传播的分析
——中非共和国的个案研究
clément anicet guiyama-massogo
Research Professor at the University of Bangui Central African Republic
克莱门特•阿尼塞•圭亚马—马索哥
班吉大学,中非共和国

161.
Olympic Opportunities : Multinationa and Transnationa l Scho larship and the Olympic Games
奥林匹克机遇:多国和跨国学术研究与奥运会
Mark Dyreson*, Cesar R. Torres**,
Thierry Terret***, and Anne Roger***
*Pennsylvania State University, **The College at Brockport,
***University of Lyon
马克•戴尔森1,塞萨尔•R•托雷斯2,
蒂里埃•铁列3,安•罗切3
1.宾夕法尼亚州立大学;
2.纽约州立大学布鲁克波特学院;
3.里昂大学

179.
Olympic Ceremonies as a Setting for Intercultura  Exchange
奥林匹克仪式:跨文化交流的平台
John MacAloon
The University of Chicago, USA
约翰•麦克阿隆
芝加哥大学,美国

205.
Korean Culture, the Seoul Olympic Games and the World Order
韩国文化、首尔奥运会和世界秩序
Shin-pyo Kang
University of Hanyang, South Korea
姜信朴
汉阳大学,韩国

223.
Multidiscip linary approaches
综合学科研究方法

225.
Conflicts in the Paris Olympic Games 1924 – a historical review
1924年巴黎奥运会时的冲突——历史回顾
Thierry Terret
University of Lyon 1 – Claude Bernard
蒂里埃•铁列
克洛德•贝纳尔-里昂第一大学,法国

237.
Ancient Hellenic Ideals and the Modern Olympic Games
古希腊理想和现代奥运会
Heather L. Reid, Morningside College, Iowa, USA
Christos C. Evangeliou, Towson University,
Maryland, USA
希瑟•L•雷德1,克里斯多斯•C•伊万格里略2
1.晨边大学,爱荷华州,美国
2.陶森大学,马里兰州,美国

249.
The Genesis of Sacred Fire in Olympic Ceremony: A New Interpretation
奥林匹克圣火新解
Robert K. Barney
University of Western Ontario London, Canada
罗伯特•巴尔尼
西安大略大学,加拿大

279.
THE OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES:A SHORT OVERVIEW
冬季奥运会梗概
Jean-Loup Chappelet
Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP), Lausanne, Switzerland
让-卢普•夏普雷特
瑞士公共管理研究学院,洛桑,瑞士

295.
Economics of the Olympic Games
奥运会的经济学研究
Holger Preuss
University of Mainz
霍格•普鲁斯
美因茨大学,德国

315.
AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE OLYMPIC ATHLETE TOWARDS A MODERNIZED PHILOSOPHY OF THE OLYMPIC
GAMES AND ATHLETES
奥林匹克运动员的人类学研究:关于奥运会和运动员的现代化哲学
Hans Lenk
Institut of Philosophy – University of Karlsruhe
汉斯•伦克
卡尔斯鲁克大学哲学研究所,德国

335.
OLYMPIC EDUCATION
奥林匹克教育研究
Norbert Müller
University of Mainz
President of the International Pierre
de Coubertin Committee (CIPC)
诺伯特•穆勒
美因茨大学,德国
国际顾拜旦委员会主席

353.
Early Politics of the Internationa Olympic Committee to Promote “Sport for All”
国际奥委会促进“大众体育”的早期方针
stephan wassong
Liverpool Hope University, Great Britain
斯蒂芬•瓦松
利物浦霍普大学,英国
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